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Examining the Influence of Histone Chaperones on Nuclear Size

Eckhardt, Seth
Size alterations in the nucleus have been visualized by pathologists for many years to diagnose and prognose cancer. Nuclear size and morphology aberrations are also common in numerous diseases. However, it is unknown whether altered nuclear size is the result or cause of pathogenesis. How the size of the nucleus is regulated is a fundamental cell biological question. A better understanding of the mechanisms that govern nuclear size regulation could elucidate novel therapeutics for cancer and disease. Here we review the structures that constitute the nucleus and delve into some of the mechanisms and components known to be correlated with nuclear size. Some of the regulators that will be covered include nuclear lamins, the endoplasmic reticulum, cell size and ploidy, chromatin condensation and nucleocytoplasmic transport. After discussing each constituent, examples are provided to highlight their implication in various types of cancer. We will then discuss the use of Xenopus laevis egg extracts to illuminate cellular scaling mechanisms and the recent discovery of a histone chaperone as a putative nuclear size effector. This research leads into the implementation of an experimental study to determine if another histone chaperone, nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein, also affects nuclear size.
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University of Wyoming. Libraries