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Full-3-D Tomography for Crustal Structure in Southern California Based on the Scattering-Integral and the Adjoint-Wavefield Methods

Lee, En Jui
Chen, Po
Jordan, Thomas H.
Maechling, P. B.
Denolle, M. A. M.
Beroza, G. C.
We have successfully applied full-3-D tomography (F3DT) based on a combination of the scattering-integral method (SI-F3DT) and the adjoint-wavefield method (AW-F3DT) to iteratively improve a 3-D starting model, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Community Velocity Model version 4.0 (CVM-S4). In F3DT, the sensitivity (Fréchet) kernels are computed using numerical solutions of the 3-D elastodynamic equation and the nonlinearity of the structural inversion problem is accounted for through an iterative tomographic navigation process. More than half-a-million misfit measurements made on about 38,000 earthquake seismograms and 12,000 ambient-noise correlagrams have been assimilated into our inversion. After 26 F3DT iterations, synthetic seismograms computed using our latest model, CVM-S4.26, show substantially better fit to observed seismograms at frequencies below 0.2 Hz than those computed using our 3-D starting model CVM-S4 and the other SCEC CVM, CVM-H11.9, which was improved through 16 iterations of AW-F3DT. CVM-S4.26 has revealed strong crustal heterogeneities throughout Southern California, some of which are completely missing in CVM-S4 and CVM-H11.9 but exist in models obtained from previous crustal-scale 2-D active-source refraction tomography models. At shallow depths, our model shows strong correlation with sedimentary basins and reveals velocity contrasts across major mapped strike-slip and dip-slip faults. At middle to lower crustal depths, structural features in our model may provide new insights into regional tectonics. When combined with physics-based seismic hazard analysis tools, we expect our model to provide more accurate estimates of seismic hazards in Southern California.
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